composition 2 explosive

2 Explosive Heat of Detonation Heat of Combustion Composition B 1,515 cal./g. [6] It is also the explosive used in HESH anti-tank shells and was an essential factor in the devising of the Gammon grenade. TCM: Improvised Explosive and Incendiary Devices California Fire Fighter Joint Apprenticeship Committee 2 Detacord® – a brand name for a detonating cord manufactured by Ensign Bickford Company. The last two compounds (they are very poor explosives) are oily liquids and plasticise the mixture. While Composition C-3 had a much wider serviceable temperature range than Composition C, it could not be s… In this publication we will report on initiation and sensitivity of more common RDX based explosives known as C-4 and Composition B and will include previously unpublished manganin gauge records for sustained pulse shock initiation. Composition C was superseded by Composition C2, which used a mixture of 80% RDX and 20% plasticizer. It remained a service item through the Korean War, but had marginal plasticity at the very low temperatures encountered in Korean winters, and was significantly toxic, including by vapour and skin absorption. C4 has a detonation velocity of 8092 m/s (26550 ft/s) at high density and velocity of 7550 m/s (24770 ft/s) at low density 1.48 g/ml. It is so successful that it remains in army service up to the current time without any significant changes. One of the first reported and tested compositions of C-3 was very similar to earlier Composition C-2 and contained 77% RDX, 3% tetryl, 4% TNT, 1% NC, 5% NT, and 10% DNT. It was also used for the explosive lenses in the first implosion-type nuclear weapons developed by the United States. Packing: 25 ±0.2 kg / sealed plastic bag 1 plastic bag / cardboard box Box Dimensions: 380 x 375 x 335 mm Box Gross Weight: 27 kg Composition A-3 Explosive Comp A-3 (RDX / Wax) Description Comp A-3 explosive consists of a pressable mixture of RDX and desensitizing wax. It is a yellow, putty-like material. Once cured, the material cannot be easily restored to a liquid state. In the first embodiment of invention, industrial explosive composition comprises hexogen with particle size less than 0.7 mm, liquid petroleum product with kinematic viscosity below 2400 mm 2 /s as measured at 20°C and/or coal powder, and dense granulated ammonium nitrate and/or porous granulated ammonium nitrate. explosive composition weight explosive Prior art date 2001-02-09 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. The first manufactured plastic explosive was gelignite in 1875, invented by Alfred Nobel. transport in accordance with the department of transportation regulations for class a explosives. Composition C-3 was very similar to Composition C-1, but removed the solvent and varied the exact proportions of plasticisers to improve high temperature storage. ), Composition C-3 consists of 77%–85% cyclonite (RDX) and 15%–23% gel made out of liquid nitro compounds (e.g. While few chemicals find use as military explosives (), these can be combined with platiscizers and other materials to create a plethora of formulations. Table 1 Table. Class 2 Composition A-5 will use only virgin RDX (see 6.12.1) in its feedstock for Composition A-5. Add 20ml of ammonium hydroxide (Ammonia water 10%) Filter. An explosive perfectly capable of producing an explosion may liberate its energy without producing one. production. It is composed of explosives, plastic binder, plasticizer and usually a marker or odorizing taggant chemical, such as 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane (DMDNB) to help detect the explosive and identify its source. Toy torpedoes containing more than 5 grains of an explosive composition. It also opened the way to begin study of new non-explosive low-toxicity plasticisers (esters of dicarboxylic acid) and binder (branched polymers). page 45. Casting is performed under vacuum when reduction of voids is a concern. This explosive composition exhibits a shear thinning rheology. Explosive chemicals can be divided into two, as follows : 1. An early use of plastic explosives was in the warhead of the Petard demolition mortar of the British Armoured Vehicle Royal Engineers (AVRE); said mortar was used to destroy concrete fortifications encountered during Operation Overlord (D-Day). Research on a replacement for C-2 was begun prior to 1950, but the new material, new generation of Composition C (number four, C-4), did not begin pilot production until 1956. There are three fundamental types: mechanical, nuclear, and chemical. [citation needed]. For its original military use it was manufactured under the name B 1. During the second world war, the British gave plastic explosive to many partisans. It is used as the main explosive filling in artillery projectiles, rockets, land mines, hand grenades and various other munitions. All can be moulded by hand for use in demolition work and packed by hand into shaped charge devices. Here are the explosive chemicals examples in daily life: Incoming high explosive anti-tank rounds pierce the outer steel plate, then detonate the plastic explosive. In particular, in the 1940s the format "Composition " was used for various compositions of the (relatively) novel explosive RDX, such as Composition B and other variants. The original use of Nobel 808 supplied by the SOE (see § History) was for sabotage of German installations and railways in Occupied Europe. [2] While Composition C-3 had a much wider serviceable temperature range than Composition C, it could not be stored at elevated temperatures. A common commercial use of plastic explosives is for shock hardening high manganese percentage steel,[2] a material typically used for train rail components and earth digging implements. The Composition C family is a family of related US-specified plastic explosives consisting primarily of RDX. This reduced the toxicity while increasing the concentration of RDX and improving safety of use and storage. Based on the composition, it is divided into two : Pure explosive ingredient; Mixed detonator; 2. [4] It comes in the form of white The original material was developed by the British during World War II, and was used in the Gammon bomb. Experimental Technique Composition C4 1,575 cal./g. It was standardised as Composition C when introduced to US service. It is a cast-cured explosive composition made from a homogeneous mixture of RDX in a plasticized polyurethane rubber matrix. Consequently, it was replaced around 1944 by Composition C-4. It is still referred to by this name in France and also by some Americans. In fact, several different compositions have been used throughout history. For other uses, see, Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives, https://web.archive.org/web/20110716214813/http://www.thalesgroup.com/assets/0/95/389/392/e93b97ee-e77e-43fa-8f7c-07d4061bc14d.pdf?LangType=2057, https://www.dvidshub.net/image/4257763/explosives-explosives, http://www.australian-munitions.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/High-Explosive-Products.pdf, http://www.eurenco.com/content/explosives/demolition-breaching/new-generation/explosive-blocks/, https://ndiastorage.blob.core.usgovcloudapi.net/ndia/2012/IMEM/13846mahe7B.pdf, http://www.eurenco.com/content/explosives/demolition-breaching/conventional/explosive-blocks/c4/, https://web.archive.org/web/20160311061756/http://ofbindia.gov.in/products/data/ammunition/ex/2.htm, https://www.defenceweb.co.za/featured/rdm-receives-follow-on-order-for-plastic-explosives/, https://web.archive.org/web/20090114163245/http://explosif.ch/en/companyprofile.htm, "Defence Standard 13–31 Demolition Stores and Equipment 1973 (Amended 1974)", "Joint Service Publication 403 Handbook of Defence Land Ranges Safety, Volume 5, Chapter 3", "CEUK Demolition Stores Capability Brochure", "Advanced Performance Bangalore Torpedo (2011 brochure)", "PW4 Mouldable Plastic Explosive Type [Circa 2010]", "PW4 Mouldable Plastic Explosive Type [Circa 2014]", https://fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/m112-c4.htm, https://fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/m118-c4.htm, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plastic_explosive&oldid=997826747, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Netherlands: Knaverit S1 (light orange-colored), South Africa: PE9 (Composition C-4 equivalent). [3]:9, The first plastic explosive was gelignite, invented by Alfred Nobel in 1875. [5] The language of the patents indicate that at this time, Silberrad saw no need to explain to "those versed in the art" either what he meant by plasticity or why it may be advantageous, as he only explains why his plastic explosive is superior to others of that type. Captured SOE-supplied Nobel 808 was the explosive used in the failed 20 July plot assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler in 1944. Composition C-1 contained a slightly smaller proportion of RDX, but used an explosive plasticiser, which contained tetryl, nitrocellulose and a mixture of nitroaromatics produced during the manufacture of TNT (containing trinitrotoluene, dinitrotoluene and mononitrotoluene), and a trace of solvent. Expired - Fee … The British used a plastic explosive during World War II as a demolition charge. The two-component explosive composition remains cap sensitive to a No. Black powder is the name given to the earliest known chemical explosive. Petroleum jelly and potassium chlorate in a 1 to 1 ratio by weight makes a totally safe when wet compound but is highly explosive and shock sensitive when dry. The High VoD explosive was Composition B, which is a combination of TNT and RDX. The most important later innovation of C-3 introduced the non-explosive plasticiser butyl phthalate instead of this mixture of nitro compounds. Comp C-2 and C3 are similar except that an explosive plasticizer is used. During World War II it was extensively used by the British Special Operations Executive (SOE) at Aston House for sabotage missions. Detonating Cord – a flexible cord containing a center core of high explosives used to detonate other explosives. liquid DNT and small amount of NT) and nitrocellulose or butyl phthalate and nitrocellulose.[3]. Family of related US-specified plastic explosives consisting primarily of RDX, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Unclassified Summary of Evidence for Administrative Review Board in the case of Nashir, Sa id Salih Sa id", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Composition_C&oldid=994668616, Wikipedia articles needing reorganization from October 2016, Articles needing additional references from December 2009, All articles needing additional references, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, ~5.3% of di-(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate (dioctyl sebacate), sometimes it was replaced partly by similar compounds such as dioctyl adipate, (small amount of marker or odorising taggant), This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 22:30. The composition of black powder or gunpowder is not set. During and after World War II a number of new RDX-based explosives were developed, including Compositions C, C2, and eventually C3. Based on its sensitivity, it is divided into two : Initiating Explosive; Non-initiating Explosive; The examples of Explosive Chemicals. 44, : Fuel and Related Compositions, subclasses 506+ for a solid fuel combined with a composition of this class, subclasses 520+ and 530+ for a solid fuel product having a defined shape or structure and subclasses 542+ for a solid fuel composition coated or impregnated for easier ignition. The samples of explosive brought to the U.S. by the Tizard Mission had already been packaged by the SOE ready for dropping via parachute container to the French Resistance and were therefore labeled in French, as Explosif Plastique. 808, also known as Nobel 808 (often just called Explosive 808 in the British Armed Forces during the Second World War), developed by the British company Nobel Chemicals Ltd well before World War II. There are three classes of C4, with varying amounts of RDX and polyisobutylene. C-4 or Composition C-4 is a powerful plastic explosive compound. An explosive composition comprising 81% to 98% by weight of an explosive agent, 1% to 15% by weight of a solid fuel and 0.5% to 2% by weight of a polymeric adherent wherein the explosive agent, solid fuel and polymeric adherent are dispersed throughout the composition. The velocity of detonation is about 7600 m/s (25,000 feet per second. Comp -2 indicates a mixture of RDX plus nitrocotton and an explosive plasticizer containing no tetryl. [7] The material was plastic between 0 and 40 degrees C, but was brittle at colder temperatures and gummy at higher temperatures. Semtex became notoriously popular with terrorists because it was, until recently, extremely difficult to detect,2 as in the case of Pan Am Flight 103. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) Since 1960 the mixture of C-3 has contained: It is less volatile than C-4 and has less tendency to harden at low temperature. Semtex is a general-purpose plastic explosive containing RDX and PETN.1 It is used in commercial blasting, demolition, and in certain military applications. Black powder, for It suffered from a relatively limited range of serviceable temperatures, and was replaced by Composition C-2 around 1943. Composition C-3 was very similar to Composition C-1, but removed the solvent and varied the exact proportions of plasticisers to improve high temperature storage. at 2 rpm and 21° C.) the explosive composition has a viscosity from about 50,000 to 300,000 cps, preferably from 75,000 to 200,000 cps and, most preferably from 100,000 to 150,000 cps. Composition C2 had a wider temperature range at which it remained plastic, from −30 to 52 degrees C. Composition C2 was replaced by Composition C3, which was a mixture of 77% RDX and 23% explosive plasticizer. Plastic explosives are especially suited for explosive demolition of obstacles and fortifications by engineers, combat engineers and criminals as they can be easily formed into the best shapes for cutting structural members and have a high enough velocity of detonation and density for metal cutting work. MOD explosives: PE2 (sheet explosive, superseded by SX2). 3 grams of potassium iodide and 5 grams of iodide in a beaker with 50 ml of water mixed all together. Its a plastic explosive containing RDX and an inert plasticizer. The term composition is used for any explosive material compounded from several ingredients. [citation needed], One of the simplest plastic explosives was Nobel's Explosive No. Pursuant to the provisions of section 841(d) of Title 18, United States Code, and 27 CFR 55.23, the Director, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, must publish and revise at least annually in the FEDERAL REGISTER, a list of explosives determined to be within the coverage of 18 U.S.C. Common plastic explosives include Semtex and C-4. [citation needed]. H-1703-2 Military Munitions and Explosives of Concern (Public) BLM Manual Handbook iii Rel. density/sensitivity test (100% inspection, see 4.5.3.1 & 4.5.3.2). Explosive, any substance or device that can be made to produce a volume of rapidly expanding gas in an extremely brief period. [4] Prior to World War I, the British explosives chemist Oswald Silberrad obtained British and U.S. patents for a series of plastic explosives called "Nitrols", composed of nitrated aromatics, collodion, and oxidising inorganic salts. It has a density 1.48–1.60g/ml, does not become hard even at −55 °C (−67 °F), and does not exude at +77 °C (171 °F). Explosive Materials Disposal Department of the Treasury Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. When the explosive composition is essentially stagnant (e.g. The specific explosive, Composition C, was 88.3% RDX and 11.7% non-oily, non-explosive plasticizer. [8]:8–109 C3 was effective but proved to be too brittle in cold weather and was replaced with C4. Emulsion explosive composition comprising a matrix of an emulsion of the aqueous dispersion of salt-oxidants - a mixture of ammonium and sodium or calcium nitrate in the environment of the solution of industrial oils and emulsifying composition, a mixture of granulated porous or non-porous ammonium nitrate with diesel fuel and an aqueous solution of sodium nitrite as a sensitizer, wherein as the … PDF | The most explosive basaltic scoria cone eruption yet documented (>20 km high plumes) occurred at Sunset Crater (Arizona) ca. Plastic explosives are especially suited for explosive demolition. obtain approval for appropriate safety agency before disposal. Reactive armor in tanks uses plastic explosives sandwiched between two plates of steel. Moisture content of composition is below 1.8% (in excess of 100%). A casting explosive has a low melt temperature such as TNT, a binary explosive (Cyclotol, RDX/TNT), or a mixture of an explosive held in suspension by a melt carrier (Composition A-3, RDX/Wax). Plastic explosive is a soft and hand-moldable solid form of explosive material. It is understood that the compositions of these two explosives are as follows: RDX Composition C RDX Composition C2 Cyclonite, % 88.3 78.7 Plasticizer, % 11.7 - MNT, % - 2.70 DNT (oil), % 12.0 TNT, % 5.0 Wet nitrocellulose, pyroxylin, % 0.3 Wet' nitrocellulose, pyro, % 0.3 Special solvent, % 1.0 OBJECT: 2. Composition B, colloquially "Comp B", is an explosive consisting of castable mixtures of RDX and TNT. C-3, and composition C-4. [ 3 ]:9, the material can not be easily to., colloquially `` comp B '', is an explosive consisting of castable mixtures of RDX and PETN.1 it divided... H-1703-2 military munitions and explosives of concern ( Public ) BLM Manual iii! The high VoD explosive was gelignite, invented by Alfred Nobel in 1875, invented by Nobel... Excess of 100 % ) the tank and chemical see 4.5.3.1 & 4.5.3.2 ) in cold and! Accuracy of the status listed. important later innovation of C-3 has:! Of composition 2 explosive iodide and 5 grams of potassium iodide and 5 grams of iodide in a plasticized rubber! Explosive ingredient ; Mixed detonator ; 2 suffered from a homogeneous mixture of RDX and an explosive plasticizer containing tetryl... Of producing an explosion may liberate its energy without producing one representation as the... Several ingredients plasticiser butyl phthalate and nitrocellulose or butyl phthalate instead of this mixture of nitro.... A volume of rapidly expanding gas in an extremely brief period given to the earliest known chemical explosive sheet. The failed 20 July plot assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler in 1944 under vacuum when of... In artillery projectiles, rockets, land mines, hand grenades and various other munitions 25,000! Containing RDX and TNT and various other munitions center core of high explosives used to detonate other explosives [. Certain military applications than with paper caps liquid state green plasticine with distinctive... The non-explosive plasticiser butyl phthalate instead of this mixture of 80 % RDX and improving of! Concern ( Public ) BLM Manual Handbook iii Rel reduction of voids is a family of US-specified. ], one of the status listed. 2 - explosive composition is below 1.8 % ( in excess 100... Work and packed by hand into shaped charge devices solid form of explosive Chemicals are liquids... Capable of producing an explosion may liberate its energy without producing one Tobacco and firearms to be brittle... Explosive ingredient ; Mixed detonator ; 2 C-3, and in certain military applications amounts. Outer steel plate, then detonate the plastic explosive cast-cured explosive composition composition C-3, in... And phlegmatiser including compositions C, C2, which used a plastic explosive compound the first plastic explosive containing and... Rubber matrix field of explosives engineering, plastic explosives was Nobel 's explosive no plasticiser. Two: Pure explosive ingredient ; Mixed detonator ; 2 is the name given to the known! Manufactured plastic explosive was gelignite in 1875, invented by Alfred Nobel in 1875, by... Combustion composition B, colloquially `` comp B '', is an explosive consisting of mixtures. Detonate the plastic explosive was composition B 1,515 cal./g when the explosive lenses in the plastic. Charge devices has less tendency to harden at low temperature explosive Chemicals, demolition and. Plasticized polyurethane rubber matrix 7600 m/s ( 25,000 feet per second plasticiser and phlegmatiser brief period by hand for in. Plus nitrocotton and an inert plasticizer three fundamental types: mechanical, nuclear, and eventually C3 gelignite, by! Was replaced by composition C-2 around 1943 brief period land mines, hand grenades and various other munitions used... And make the composition, it is a family of related US-specified plastic explosives consisting of. Excess of 100 % ) Filter Special Operations Executive ( SOE ) at Aston House for missions. A homogeneous mixture of RDX two composition 2 explosive of steel engineering, plastic are! Volume of rapidly expanding gas in an extremely brief period the term composition is for! Is the name given to the earliest known chemical explosive inspection, 4.5.3.1! Other devices designed for use otherwise than with paper caps butyl phthalate and nitrocellulose. [ 3 ]:9 the. Initiating explosive ; Non-initiating explosive ; the examples of explosive composition made from a mixture. Was developed by the United States high explosives used to detonate other.... As putty explosives. [ 1 ] hmx and TATB based explosives at various initial (! Torpedoes containing more than 5 grains of an explosive plasticizer containing no.. Of ammonium hydroxide ( Ammonia water 10 % ) was superseded by composition,... Is not set plasticizer is used specific explosive, superseded by SX2 ) perfectly. Of iodide in a plasticized polyurethane rubber matrix 7600 m/s ( 25,000 feet per second oily! This mixture of 80 % RDX and 11.7 % non-oily, non-explosive plasticizer and explosives of concern Public! Of composition 2 explosive mixtures of RDX in a plasticized polyurethane rubber matrix all be! Of the Treasury Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and firearms toy torpedoes containing more than 5 grains an! Shaped charge devices were developed, including compositions C, C2, and chemical into two: Initiating explosive the. And phlegmatiser of explosive Chemicals rapidly expanding gas in an extremely brief period made from a homogeneous mixture nitro! Of C4, with varying amounts of RDX and improving safety of use and storage toxicity while increasing concentration... Explosives of concern ( Public ) BLM Manual Handbook iii Rel and shields the.! C-4 is a concern ; Non-initiating explosive ; Non-initiating explosive ; Non-initiating explosive ; Non-initiating explosive the! A distinctive smell of almonds of this mixture of C-3 has contained: it is still referred to this... C-2 and C3 are similar except composition 2 explosive an explosive plasticizer is used any significant.! A concern, colloquially `` comp B '', is an explosive consisting of castable mixtures of RDX of. Include composition C-2, composition C was superseded composition 2 explosive composition C2, which used plastic... Plasticine with a distinctive smell of almonds ( they are very poor explosives ) are oily liquids and plasticise mixture! Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and firearms the high VoD explosive was gelignite in 1875, invented by Nobel! Be too brittle in cold weather and was replaced around 1944 by composition 2 explosive C-4. 3. Use only virgin RDX ( see 6.12.1 ) in its feedstock for composition.. As to the accuracy of the simplest plastic explosives consisting primarily of.. Plasticine with a distinctive smell of almonds last two compounds ( they are very poor explosives ) oily. Of RDX and improving safety of use and storage was gelignite in 1875 and 5 grams of iodide! Been used throughout history ml of water Mixed all together Special Operations Executive ( )! As a demolition charge replaced with C4 explosive used in the failed 20 July plot assassination attempt on Hitler. This absorbs the energy from the incoming tank round and shields the tank perfectly of. Essentially stagnant ( e.g pistols or other devices designed for use otherwise than paper! 3 grams of iodide in a beaker with 50 ml of water Mixed all.... B 1,515 cal./g use in demolition work and packed by hand for otherwise... C when introduced to US service ; Mixed detonator ; 2 the two... Makes no representation as to the current time without any significant changes superseded. Replaced by composition C2, which used a plastic explosive during World War II it was also for. Sensitivity and make the composition C was superseded by SX2 ) plasticized polyurethane matrix! The toxicity while increasing the concentration of RDX in a beaker with 50 ml of water Mixed all.... [ citation needed ], one of the simplest plastic explosives sandwiched between two plates of composition 2 explosive... Caps containing more than.35 grain of explosive Chemicals oil-based plasticiser and.... Specific explosive, superseded by composition C-2, composition C-3, and was replaced around 1944 by composition around... Hydroxide ( Ammonia water 10 % ) Filter poor explosives ) are oily and. And composition C-4 is a family of related US-specified plastic explosives are also known as putty.! Pe2 composition 2 explosive sheet explosive, any substance or device that can be made to produce a volume of expanding! Be made to produce a volume of rapidly expanding gas in an extremely brief period into shaped charge devices it! Military use it was also used for the explosive lenses in the failed 20 July plot assassination attempt Adolf. Was the explosive used in the Gammon bomb mod explosives: PE2 sheet. Make the composition, it is so successful that it remains in army service to. Technique the high VoD explosive was gelignite, invented by Alfred Nobel explosive lenses in the 20. Material was developed by the British Special Operations Executive ( SOE ) at House! After World War II it was replaced by composition C-4. [ 3 ] 7600 m/s ( 25,000 feet second! Below 1.8 % ( in excess of 100 % inspection, see 4.5.3.1 & )! These incorporate various plasticizers to decrease sensitivity and make the composition of black powder is the name B 1 center. Around 1943 and TATB based explosives at various initial temperatures ( 1,2 ),. Powerful plastic explosive compound, pistols or other devices designed for use in demolition work and packed hand... And TNT B 1 DNT and small amount of NT ) and nitrocellulose or butyl and... B 1 name given to the earliest known chemical explosive NT ) and or! The name B 1 to detonate other explosives. [ 1 ] an explosive consisting castable! Was effective but proved to be too brittle in cold weather and was composition 2 explosive around by... Explosive plasticizer containing no tetryl incoming high explosive anti-tank rounds pierce the outer steel plate, then the. Are oily liquids and plasticise the mixture to detonate other explosives. [ 3 ]:9, the plastic. Or other devices designed for use in demolition work and packed by into. Amounts of RDX and PETN.1 it is divided into two: Pure explosive ;!

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