history of myanmar education system

Nay Pyi Taw was proclaimed the capital of Myanmar in 2006. Student enrollment in university in 2014 was 550,000. In 2005, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs officially announced that Burma education was reaching an international standard and the government had fully entitled to 156 universities and colleges in Myanmar. Following an optional pre-school period, children enter primary school for 5 compulsory years. Progress and Completion in Education Indawgyi Lake, in the northern hills, runs some 15 miles (24 km) from north to south and 8 miles (13 km) from east to west; it is one of the largest natural inland lakes of Southeast Asia. 1 Basic Education System 1.1 The current basic education system in Myanmar comprises six years of primary (Grade 1 to Grade 6), three years of lower secondary (Grade 7 to Grade 9) and two years of upper secondary (Grade 10 and Grade 11) education. Education System. Launching New Programs Engineering takes 6 year of study and … Symposiums were held on the basic education sector and plans were drawn up for implementation. Low in nutrients and organic matter, they are improved by fertilizers. Myanmar, also known as Burma, was long considered a pariah state while under the rule of an oppressive military junta from 1962 to 2011. Ruins of ancient Buddhist shrines and pagodas, Pagan, Myanmar. Culture. The provision of education and health care is very limited and what exists is under-resourced. Myanmar, also called Burma, country, located in the western portion of mainland Southeast Asia. Then in 1866, the British established an education centre in lower Myanmar and the monastic education system was transformed into classroom education. Starting with pre-colonial forms of schooling, which occurred almost entirely outside the confines of the state, the chapter traces the evolution through colonisation and the country’s independence to the non-state and state-provided education systems that exist today. The education of Myanmar first began during the time of ancient kings and had been regarded as important and significant. Its total length from north to south is about 1,275 miles (2,050 km), and its width at the widest part, across the centre of the country at about the latitude of the city of Mandalay, is approximately 580 miles (930 km) from east to west. The lowland regions are covered with alluvial soils—mainly silt and clay. In 1989 the country’s official English name, which it had held since 1885, was changed from the Union of Burma to the Union of Myanmar; in the Burmese language the country has been known as Myanma (or, more precisely, Mranma Prañ) since the 13th century. Historically, Burma, officially called Myanmar, has not supported and has even been hostile to education. The Myanmar government has made reform of the entire higher education system a national priority. Then after 1962 some of these faculties were transformed into separate universities. With the opening of the new college, the Diploma in Education classes was discontinued. But there are 150 universities and colleges that are divided into 14 divisions and states. Like the mountains, Myanmar’s main rivers run from north to south. All rights reserved. At the apex of its delta, the Irrawaddy breaks up into a vast network of streams and empties into the Andaman Sea through multiple mouths. One of the main drivers is the recognition of the important role of human capital to the economic development goals of the country. Discussions about the education system in Myanmar often tend to be dominated by the curriculum. The country as a whole can be divided into five physiographic regions—the northern mountains, the western ranges, the eastern plateau, the central basin and lowlands, and the coastal plains. Many of its tributaries are more than 300 miles (480 km) long and join the Salween in cascades. Myanmar. The number of female students enrolled in school rose 61% (by 45,000 students) from 1911-1921, and another 82% (100,000 students) from 1921 to 1931 with expansion of the colonial and private education system, primarily in the form of all-girls schools. In the centre of the basin and structurally connected with the Bago Mountains and their northern extension is a line of extinct volcanoes with small crater lakes and eroded cones, the largest being Popa Hill, at 4,981 feet (1,518 metres). in education outputs. In the deltaic regions formed by the Irrawaddy and Sittang rivers, the landscape is absolutely flat, and the monotony is relieved only by a few blocks of erosion-resistant rocks that are never more than 60 feet (18 metres) high. In the same region, however, when the soil has a low clay content, it becomes saline under high evaporation and is recognizable by its yellow or brown colour. Since 1971, four-year education plans were laid down. During British colonial rule, educational access for women improved tremendously. The ESS was begun in 1990 and Phase I—Final Report (of the diagnostic phase) was completed in 1992. In 1947, it was upgraded to a degree college. From north to south, the Patkai Range, Naga Hills, and Chin Hills form the border between India and Myanmar. The story of the education system in Myanmar is closely interweaved with the political situation. Author of. At independence, Myanmar had the highest literacy rate in … One of the primary areas that would benefit from reform is Burma’s education system. Stretching from latitude 10° N to about 28° 30′ N, Myanmar is the northernmost country of Southeast Asia; it is shaped like a kite with a long tail that runs south along the Malay Peninsula. After the independence, the public schools started reaching all parts of… Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Myanmar's educational system has been suffering from a proportionately declining budget. Participation in Education. Since Myanmar’s internal conflicts are long-lasting and complex, the new education system should help people understand the underlying causes of current ethnic conflicts, contribute to social transformation and the peace process as well as learn non-violent ways of responding to conflict. Sort out the facts in this quiz all about the diverse countries and cities around Asia. The basin is divided into two unequal parts, the larger Irrawaddy valley and the smaller Sittang valley, by the Bago Mountains. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. dual–administration education system). Somewhat smaller is Inle Lake, stretching about 14 miles (22 km) from north to south and 7 miles (11 km) from east to west, on the Shan Plateau. In Ayeyawady Division, there are 12 universities and colleges; 9 in Bago division; 1 in Chin State; 8 in Kachin State; 3 in kayah State; 4 in Kayin State; 14 in Magway division; 32 in … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Nearly all schools are government-operated, but recently, there has been an increase in privately funded schools (which specialise in English). The quality of school teachers may be excellent, however aging materials sadly let them down. Structure of Education System in Myanmar Source: Panorama of Myanmar Higher Education (June, 2012) The credit system introduced in 2000-01 AY is being revised in tandem with new courses in order to facilitate Myanmar Students in transferring credits to foreign HEIs on student exchange programs. For the poor and disadvantaged in remote areas who have no access to or cannot afford to go to public schools, monastic schools are often the only source of education, providing free tuition and textbooks. In Myanmar, where more than 80 per cent of the population lives in rural areas, monastic schools fill a significant gap in the education sector. The National Education Strategic Plan (NESP) 2016-21 was developed as a result of a nationwide comprehensive education sector review, which started in 2012. This region contains the sources of several of Asia’s great rivers, including the Irrawaddy, which rises and flows wholly within Myanmar, and the Salween (Thanlwin), which rises to the north in China. 1.1.2 Education and People with Disabilities in Myanmar The history of education for PWDs in Myanmar has seen numerous plans made by the government for the benefit of PWDs but has yet to find success in implementation. Inle Lake, near Taunggyi, Myanmar (Burma). Secondary education consists of a four-year cycle followed by a two-year cycle. Boat on the Irrawaddy River, Myanmar (Burma). © Copyright 2021 The Myanmar Times. Flowing entirely through Myanmar, it is navigable for nearly 1,000 miles (1,600 km). Education in Burma is not only inaccessible to many people but also heightens existing ethnic tensions. The French system of education was replaced with a Laotian curriculum, although lack of teaching materials has impeded effective instruction. The Shan Plateau to the east rises abruptly from the central basin, often in a single step of some 2,000 feet (600 metres). An intensive adult literacy campaign was initiated in 1983-84, which mobilized educated persons living in villages and urban neighborhoods to bring basic reading and writing skills to over 750,000 adults. Schooling is compulsory until the end of elementary school. EDUCATION IN MYANMAR 1. Corrections? It is deeply entrenched and crosses the plateau in a series of deep gorges. Teaching revolves around textbook instruction with little to no research focus. Education since 1975 An important goal of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (LPDR) government was to establish a system of universal primary education by 1985. Popa Hill, in the Pegu Mountains, Myanmar. The Shan Plateau is drained by the Salween River, which enters Myanmar from southern China and empties into the Gulf of Martaban southeast of the Sittang. From … Updates? Myanmar - History Background; Myanmar - Educational System—overview; Myanmar - Administration, Finance, Educational Research; Myanmar - Teaching Profession; Myanmar - Summary; Education Encyclopedia - StateUniversity.com Global Education Reference By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Then work on education research and census on education was also carried out. About three-fifths of Myanmar’s surface is drained by the Irrawaddy and its tributaries. Nevertheless, this is a successful non-sate education regime which offers a model for dual-language schooling in a multi-ethnic country such as Burma - a prototype ‘federal’ education system. In olden days there were Buddhist monasteries in every corner of the country including in towns, villages and most of these monasteries had schools attached. Associate Professor of Asian Studies, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu. Later in 1947, the first State Teachers’ Training College (S.T.T.C) was opened in Yangon. Myanmar, also called Burma, country, located in the western portion of mainland Southeast Asia.In 1989 the country’s official English name, which it had held since 1885, was changed from the Union of Burma to the Union of Myanmar; in the Burmese language the country has been known as Myanma (or, more precisely, Mranma Prañ) since the 13th century. Then in June, 1925 Mandalay College was founded as an affiliated institution to University of Yangon. In 1884 Yangon College was established and was affiliated to Calcutta University in India. Science, Technology and Innovation. Their average elevation is about 6,000 feet (1,800 metres), although some peaks rise to 10,000 feet (3,000 metres) or higher. Historically, Myanmar had a high quality education system Traditionally, children were taught at monasteries, and later following British colonization, there was a shift towards a westernized public school system. Inle Lake is fed by dozens of streams. Electrification is vital to fight against... Week in Review: Tourist arrivals fall 75% in... Myanmar among five Asian countries needing... Nay Pyi Taw vows to take action against... 16 Myanmar migrants victims of fraud in... NLD expected to take all chief minister posts. Universities in Myanmar remain highly centralized and state run. Browse by country. In Myanmar once also known as Burma decades of political conflict have reduced a once-proud education system to one that is lagging sadly. Calculate training courses known by Ah Thone Lone began in the centre of Yangon and Mandalay not only inaccessible many! Plans were implemented lagging sadly, drains the western region materials sadly let them.! 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