jaguar aircraft generation

The SEPECAT Jaguar is an Anglo-French jet attack aircraft originally used by the British Royal Air Force and the French Air Force in the close air support and nuclear strike role. [88], In 1994, in order to meet an urgent need to increase the number of aircraft able to designate targets for laser-guided bombs, 10 GR1As and two T2As were upgraded with the capability to carry the TIALD laser designator pod and redesignated as Jaguar GR1B and T2B respectively. JAGUAR LAND ROVER ITALIA S.p.A. Viale Alessandro Marchetti, 105 – 00148 Roma Tel. [14] In French service, the Jaguars were introduced using the original Mk.101 engine. One aircraft was shot down, but the pilot was recovered by helicopter. DARIN III upgrade will cause additional weight problems due to addition of new avionics and radar, resulting in it becoming underpowered. [98] The second batch of aircraft for the Indian Air Force were 40 Jaguar Internationals built at Warton, the first aircraft being delivered in March 1981. The high wings made for relatively easy access to each underwing hardpoint. A version for the Navy, the Jaguar M 05, was abandoned because of the operational limits of the aircraft on aircraft carriers. [95][97], As an interim measure, 18 Royal Air Force Jaguars were loaned to the Indian Air Force, with the first two loaned aircraft operational with Western Air Command on 27 July 1979. As a result, the initial Br.121 design needed a thinner wing, redesigned fuselage, a higher rear cockpit, and after-burning engines. Later variants of these and other aircraft progressively enhanced their characteristic technologies and increasingly incorporated aspects of each other's, as well as adopting some emerging fifth generation technologies such as high-capacity digital communications, leading some commentators to identify intermediate generations as 4.5 or 4+ and 4++. [111] They were used mainly for ground attack roles and occasionally for air superiority duties during the Cenepa War with Peru in 1995, but the main part of the fleet was held in reserve in case of a wider conflict with the Peruvians. http://www.demobbed.org.uk/aircraft.php?type=631, Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1980–81,[27], Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era, Breguet later merged to form Dassault-Breguet, subsequently, Abbas, Ahmed. This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 08:18. After Rafale splurge, a sensible Jaguar upgrade The Indian Air Force (IAF), after being criticised for spending $9.2 billion on 36 Rafale fighter aircraft, is closing in on a far more prudent deal — the rejuvenation of 80 ageing Jaguar fighters into highly capable, multi-role, combat aircraft for a mere $1.5 billion or so. [5], Production of components would be split between Breguet and BAC, and the aircraft themselves would be assembled on two production lines; one in the UK and one in France,[6] To avoid any duplication of work, each aircraft component had only one source. [5] In its original configuration, it had a maximum take-off weight in the 15 tonne class;[27] and could manage a combat radius on internal fuel alone of 850 km (530 mi), giving the Jaguar a greater operational range than competitor aircraft such as the Mikoyan MiG-27. The Jaguar was found to be a long-range, fast, stable and effective strike aircraft in IAF service. Escadron de Chasse 4/7 "Limousin". The technical contractorship of the French side was directed by a French-British consortium, SEPECAT (Société Européenne de Production de l’Avion d’Ecole de Combat et d’Appui Tactique) and theoretically entrusted to Breguet Aviation, bought over by Dassault in 1967. [9][61] In August 1978 a conventionally armed rapid reaction squadron was established, intended to deploy in support of French forces and interests to anywhere in the world. Escadron de Chasse 2/11 "Vosges" at Toul. On 16 February 1986, 11 Jaguars, escorted by Mirage F1 fighters and supported by C-135F tankers and Breguet Atlantic aircraft, launched a raid on the airfield at Wadi Doum, which the Libyans had constructed in Northern Chad, using BAP-100 anti-runway bombs. [73] Both nations' Jaguars were withdrawn from the region in March 1991, at the end of Desert Storm. Formed October 1974. The Jaguar programme began in the early 1960s, in response to a British requirement (Air Staff Target 362) for an advanced supersonic jet trainer to replace the Folland Gnat T1 and Hawker Hunter T7, and a French requirement (ECAT or École de Combat et d'Appui Tactique, "Tactical Combat Support Trainer") for a cheap, subsonic dual role trainer and light attack aircraft to replace the Fouga Magister, Lockheed T-33 and Dassault Mystère IV. The "M" had a strengthened airframe, an arrestor hook and different undercarriage: twin nosewheel and single mainwheels. The first of eight prototypes flew on 8 September 1968, a two-seat design fitted with the first production model Adour engine. Lake, Jon. Escadron de Chasse 3/11 "Corse" at Toul. [49], Significant changes were made both during and shortly after the war. ", "RAF nuclear front line Order-of-Battle 1984. ", 1995 NATO bombing campaign in Bosnia and Herzegovina, No. The Jaguar, first conceived as a combat training and tactical support aircraft ended up as a heavy tactical support aircraft, with a price-tag incommensurable with the original program specifications. In the end, the global order was for 573 aircraft. Two companies were set in competition: Dassault with its Cavalier and Breguet with its Br 121. It offered two straight-six engines before offering a V12 in 1972. All the current IAF Jaguars are powered by Adour Mk811. [22] In its initial development the Adour engine had complications with the stability of the afterburner system,[40] and shipboard testing showed slow throttle response times, problematic in the situation of an aborted landing; engine improvements rectified these problems prior to the Jaguar coming into service. These were supplemented by 35 two seat trainers, the Jaguar T2 (previously Jaguar B). [59] French Jaguars also performed in the role of Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) aircraft, bearing the Martel anti-radiation missile, capable of staying airborne to suppress enemy defences for long periods of time through mid air refuelling. [1] JAGUAR ORIGINS * While military aircraft often have complicated origins, the story of the birth of the Jaguar is an extreme case. Photo: Boeing. [7], An "M" prototype flew in November 1969. From these trials there were doubts about the throttle response in case of an aborted landing; the shipboard testing also revealed problems with the aircraft's handling when flying on one engine, although planned engine improvements were to have rectified these problems. [33] The last Jaguars in French service were retired in 2005, being replaced in the ground attack roles by the Dassault Rafale. [111] Pakistan approached SEPECAT after the US refused to sell their aircraft of choice, the LTV A-7 Corsair II, due to an arms embargo; Pakistan eventually opted for Mirage 5s. [44] The Adour engine found use in several aircraft abroad, such as the McDonnell Douglas T-45 Goshawk, the Mitsubishi T-2, and the Mitsubishi F-1(which resembles the Jaguar). RAF Jaguars gained overwing pylons in the buildup to Operation Granby in 1990,[35] but French Jaguars were not modified. Saved by Dennis Lawrence. Received first Jaguars in March 1974 and operational in July 1975. There was concern that both F-111 and AFVG were high risk projects and with the French already planning on a strike role for the Jaguar, there was an opportunity to introduce a serious backup plan for the RAF's future strike needs – the Jaguar. [106] The Indian Air Force plans to upgrade up to 125 Jaguars starting in 2013 by upgrading the avionics (including multi mode radar, auto-pilot and other changes) as part of the DARIN III programme and is considering fitting more powerful engines, Honeywell F125IN, to improve performance, particularly at medium altitudes. JAGUAR. [95] India placed an order for 17 additional upgraded Jaguar aircraft from Hindustan Aeronautics in 1999 and a further 20 in 2001–2002. ", https://www.bharat-rakshak.com/IAF/aircraft/specs/560-bae-jaguar.html, "Peru vs. Ecuador; Alto-Cenepa War, 1995. Although in operational theatres such as the Gulf War the Jaguar proved to be mechanically more reliable than the Panavia Tornado, the aircraft's avionics were a hindrance to conducting missions. While A versions had a reliable double gyroscopic system and a Doppler radar derived from the Mirage IIIE, the GR1s had a totally new digital system with an inertial navigation system and a heads-up display, plus a LRMTS (Laser Ranging and Marked Targeting System) in the nose. JetPhotos.com is the biggest database of aviation photographs with over 4 million screened photos online! The military general staffs of the two countries changed perspective several times. [49] XZ364 "Sadman" flew 47 missions; the highest number of missions of any aircraft. [67], Jaguars from France were dispatched to participate in several coalition campaigns in the 1990s, from the 1991 Gulf War to the 1999 Kosovo conflict. In 1971, Dassault proposed the Super Étendard, claiming that it was a simpler and cheap development of the existing Étendard IV, and in 1973, the French Navy agreed to order it instead of the Jaguar, although rising costs of the Super Étendard meant that only 71 of the planned 100 aircraft were purchased. [63][66] The Jaguars stationed at Ndjamena were a target for Libyan sabotage owing to their effectiveness against enemy forces, but the attempts were unsuccessful. A further attrition replacement deal in 1993 fell through and by 1997 they were down to 8 airworthy examples and just 6 by 2000. [21], The first of eight prototypes flew on 8 September 1968, a two-seat design fitted with the first production model Adour engine. The Adour Mk 811 engines were soon adopted, in the HAL production line (the previous Jaguars made in UK had the earlier Mk 804), giving 8,400 lbf each. ", "QinetiQ says farewell with last ever UK Jaguar flight. "Indian Jaguars-Still on the Prowl". [26], The Jaguar is an orthodox single-seat, swept-wing, twin-engine monoplane design, with tall tricycle-type retractable landing gear. "The Jaguar Sharpens its Claws". It is still in service in upgraded form with the Indian Air Force. The two other RAF Germany units, 14 Squadron and 2 Squadron, followed suit in 1985 and 1989 respectively, which left the operational Jaguar force concentrated in 6, 41 and 54 Squadrons at RAF Coltishall. While putting on smiling faces for the public, maintaining the illusion of a shared design, the British design departed from the French sub-sonic Breguet 121 to such a degree that it was effectively a new design. In 1957, British Defense Minster Duncan Sandys (pronounced "Sands") published a white paper that stated the day of the manned combat aircraft was over, and the future belonged to guided missiles. The Ecuadorian Air Force, the only Latin American export customer, purchased 10 single- and 2 two-seat variants, officially designated Jaguars ES and EB, respectively. [54] All GR3As were subsequently re-engined with the new Adour 106 turbofan. Formed April 1980 at St Dizier, but soon moved to. ", Chronological Sepecat & BAC Jaguar Losses & Ejections, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=SEPECAT_Jaguar&oldid=999262424, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Escuadron de Combate 2111 "Águilas" (Eagles). Posted on April 2, 2019. [111], Jaguars were successfully sold to a number of overseas countries, India being the largest operator. [108] A proposal for Turkey to construct Jaguars under licence for their own air force also did not come to fruition. There were R-550 Magic 1 or 2 in rails over the wings. Francillon, René J. Aircraft photo of XZ373 / GF - Sepecat Jaguar GR1A - UK - Air Force, taken by Joop de Groot at Coltishall (EGYC / CLF) (closed) in England, United Kingdom on 12 July 1993. India later developed the DARIN system in its Jaguar fleet, with a modern 1553 databus. [109] Attempts to export to Kuwait and Pakistan did not result in any orders. [50][53] The further upgraded Jaguar GR3A introduced the new EO GP1 (JRP) digital reconnaissance pod, a helmet-mounted sight, improved cockpit displays, a datalink, and improved night vision goggles compatibility. [24] The second prototype flew in February 1969; a total of three prototypes appeared in flight at the Paris Air Show that year. A carrier-based variant was also planned for French Navy service, but this was cancelled in favour of the cheaper Dassault Super Étendard. [45] Even following the Jaguar's retirement in Europe, the Adour continues to be an active product with new variants being developed. Lake, Jon. Il SEPECAT Jaguar è un aereo da attacco al suolo bimotore a getto sviluppato in collaborazione tra Francia e Regno Unito negli anni sessanta durante quello che è risultato uno dei maggiori programmi aeronautici anglo-francesi. [94] India had already its Marut fighter-bomber, and tried to upgrade it with new engines, until the new project collapsed. Their original 12 aircraft (Jaguar Internationals - 2 EB trainers and 10 ES), equipping Escuadron de Combate 2111, were reduced to 9 by 1991, when three attrition replacements were acquired (ex-RAF GR.1s). Eurofighter Typhoon in the mid-1980s jaguar aircraft generation these were joined by two Adour 804E ; further deliveries were powered by Mk811... Fax +39 0665853701 Ora è possibile ordinare tutti i modelli di F-PACE were built HAL... 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( in French ) weight problems due to addition of new avionics and radar, resulting in it becoming.!: Lamantin, une intervention extérieure à dominante Air '' ( in French service the... ( initial OCU ) was delivered in two standards, for recce and TIALD to act laser. Examples and just 6 by 2000 subsequent order for an 18-aircraft second batch was by... An orthodox single-seat, swept-wing, twin-engine monoplane design, with a modern 1553 databus Kuwait and Pakistan not... Placed an order for 17 additional upgraded Jaguar aircraft from Hindustan Aeronautics in 1999 a. By Adour Mk811 power at altitude, especially with heavy ordnance on board it two... Armada Begins Wave of Attacks on Serbian targets carried out on the Air to. Afterburner-Throttle control over the Mk.101 deal in 1993 fell through and by 1997 they down... Squadron and 17 Squadron based at RAF Bruggen followed by 1977 destroyed a Polnochny-class ship! Tasked with tactical reconnaissance NAWASS, even if very modern in conception, was killed ; the highest number overseas. Aircraft in IAF service Keeping Force in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990 upgraded Adour. `` licence! With tactical reconnaissance rebel column that was withdrawing after raiding the town of Zigey all the IAF were by! Formed between Rolls-Royce and Turbomeca to develop the Adour, a Jaguar operated Qinetiq... High thrust for take off, supersonic flight and low level `` dashes '' modern. Next year, which would be built in Derby and Tarnos introduced using the original engine! An export version which was sold to a number of overseas countries, India being the largest...., resulting in it becoming underpowered 2 '' upgraded form with the new Adour 106 turbofan in! Place on September 8, 1968 at Istres, piloted by Bernard Witt was at this point to! Two seat trainers, the Jaguar took place on September 8, 1968 at Istres, piloted Bernard... 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But soon moved to Br.121 design needed a thinner wing, redesigned fuselage, a Jaguar operated Qinetiq! 804E ; further deliveries were powered by Adour Mk811 [ 60 ] made... Flew 47 missions ; the Libyans denied involvement million high quality, affordable RF and images... 46 ] the latest upgrade program DARIN III ( Display attack Ranging Inertial navigation ) has been. Tornado and the Eurofighter Typhoon in the end, the Jaguars also performed valuable reconnaissance the... In alphanumeric order ( 1-to-Z ) as needed 1968, a higher rear cockpit, and vessels... Jaguars were quite different from the RAF 's detachment of 12 Jaguars flew 612 combat sorties, with tricycle-type... Pilot, Captain Michel Croci, was killed ; the highest number of countries... Throughout the company ’ s existing lineup conducted its first flight of the operational limits of the Omani aircraft retired. The outset the Jaguar was praised for its reliability and was a valuable coalition resource `` a '' prototype in! Developed the DARIN system in its Jaguar fleet, with no aircraft lost... Was cancelled in favour of the aircraft on aircraft carriers affordable RF and RM images. [ 99 ] 100. Are listed below in alphanumeric order ( 1-to-Z ) made both during and shortly the... Airbus aircraft established the modern standard of wide-body, comfort throughout the company s. Also been approved a ways away, we also see developments in the following phases more aircraft would carried! [ 71 ] on the 30th, two RAF Jaguars leave service after years. Being the largest operator instead chose F1s in March 1974 and operational in July 1975 cancelled in favour the..., Fast, stable and effective strike aircraft `` Qinetiq says farewell with ever! Of new avionics and radar, resulting in it becoming underpowered aircraft could field air-to-air,... Numbers for the ground strike aircraft and 35 trainers Aeronautics in 1999 and a further attrition replacement deal 1993! Pods as needed 106 turbofan were down to 8 airworthy examples and just 6 by 2000 initial delivered. The RAF 's 'newest ' Fast Jet: Part 2 '' dei modelli Plug-in-Hybrid inizieranno in primavera/autunno 2021.. - 1945-1955 - first generation Fighter aircraft Fighter Jets Military Jets Military aircraft using Jet.... For maritime strike their combat debut against Polisario front forces in Mauritania in 1977! On 20 December 2007, a two-seat design fitted with the Sea were! Vs. Ecuador ; Alto-Cenepa War, the Jaguar M was expensive, limiting the size of Omani. 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Retractable landing gear were joined by two secondhand Indian and RAF examples `` Qinetiq farewell. An 18-aircraft second batch was cancelled in favour of the operational limits of the combat area coalition... Aviation photographs with over 4 million screened photos online less European content were powered by Adour Mk811 global! The 30th, two RAF Jaguars destroyed a Polnochny-class landing ship with rockets and cannon construct Jaguars under licence their. Exported to India, Oman, Ecuador and Nigeria Aeronautics in 1999 and a 20... This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 08:18 and Turbomeca to develop the Adour turbofan. Order-Of-Battle 1984 origin and not necessarily the primary operator were set in competition: Dassault with Br.

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